Terminology

General Terms

Terms Meanings
Budō Martial Way / Japanese Martial Arts
Osu Pushing yourself, being patient.
When you face difficulties, you need to be patient and push yourself to get through it. This concept is very important in Karate. We also use this word for greeting and response to show our spirit of “OSU”.
Dōjō Training Hall, Martial Art School
Sensei Instructor / Teacher
Senpai Senior Students (Higher Ranks)
Kōhai Junior Students (Lower Ranks)
Mokusō Meditation
Dōgi Uniform for martial arts / Gi
Obi Belt
Kuro Obi Black Belt
Hajime Start / Begin
Zokkō Continue / Keep going
Yame Stop / Finish
Kihon Basics
Kiotsuke Stand up straight and pay attention
Seiza Kneeling / Sitting on your feet
Rei Bow
Sensei Ni Rei Bow to Sensei
Otagai Ni Rei Bow to each other
Yōi Get ready
Kumite Sparring
Yakusoku Kumite Pre-arranged Sparring
Kata Form(s)
Naore Go back to original position
Yasume Take a break
Kamaete Get in position
Mawatte Turn around
Ippon Full Point
Wazaari Half Point
Zenshin Attitude/Mind Preparation
Before executing your moves, always pay attention to your situation, techniques, and your opponent and prepare your mind properly.
Tsūshin Attitude/Mind During Execution
While executing your moves, always pay attention to your techniques, and your opponent and keep your mind properly.
Zanshin Remaining Mind / Awareness
After executing your moves, always keep awareness of the things around you, of your opponent, and your technique.
Tameshiwari Breaking to test abilities
Buki Weapons
Jōdan High
Chūdan Middle Height
Gedan Low
Jūshin Center of Gravity / Center of Balance
Numbers

Numbers Numbers in Japanese
1 Ichi
2 Ni
3 San
4 Shi (Yon)
5 Go
6 Roku
7 Shichi (Nana)
8 Hachi
9 Kyū (Ku)
10
11 Jū Ichi
12 Jū Ni
20 Ni Jū
100 Hyaku
Shugi (Hand Techniques)

Terms Meanings
Tsuki (~ Zuki) Punch (~ Punch)
Seiken Proper Fist / Tight Fist
Seiken Zuki Regular Straight Punch with Tight Fist (Top 2 Knuckles)

 
ex)
Seiken Jōdan Zuki = High Punch
Seiken Chūdan Zuki = Middle Height Punch
Seiken Gedan Zuki = Low Punch

Oi Tsuki / Jun Tsuki Same Side Punch (Same Side as Front Foot)

 
ex)
Seiken Jōdan Oi Tsuki = Same Side High Punch

Gyaku Zuki Reverse Punch / Opposite Side Punch (Opposite Side from Front Foot)

 
ex)
Seiken Chūdan Gyaku Zuki = Reverse Middle Height Punch

Seiken Ago Uchi Punch to Chin
Kagi Zuki Hook Punch
Ura Zuki Upper Punch
Shita Zuki Under Punch
Uke Block / Deflect / Handling Attacks

 
ex)
Seiken Jōdan Uke = Upper Block with Hand in Tight Fist
Shutō Jōdan Uke = Upper Block with Hand in Hand Sword Form

Chūdan Uke Middle Height Block

 
ex)  Soto = Outside / Uchi = Inside
Chūdan Soto Uke = Middle Height Outside Block
Chūdan Uchi Uke = Middle Height Inside Block
(Depending on Karate styles, these are sometimes flipped.)

Chūdan Soto Uke Middle Height Outside Block (Depending on Karate style, it goes opposite direction.)
Gedan Uke / Gedan Barai Down Block / Low Block
Mawashi Uke Circular Block
Shutō Mawashi Uke Double Hand Sword Block
Uraken Back Fist
Uraken Uchi Back Fist Strike
Uraken Ago Uchi Back Fist Strike to Chin
Uraken Sayū Uchi Back Fist Strike to Both Sides (Left & Right)
Uraken Hizou Uchi Back Fist Strike to Spleen (Generally Stomach Height)
Uraken Mawashi Uchi Round Back Fist Strike
Shutō Hand Sword
Shutō Ganmen Uchi Hand Sword Strike to the Side of the Head (Temple)
Shutō Ganmen Uchi Hand Sword Strike to the Side of the Head (Temple)
Shutō Sakotsu Uchi / Shutō Sakotsu Uchi Oroshi Hand Sword Strike to Collar Bone (Strike Down)
Shutō Sakotsu Uchikomi Hand Sword Strike to Collar Bone (Straight In)
Shutō Sakotsu Uchi Uchi Hand Sword Strike to Collar Bone (Cross Strike)
Shutō Hizou Uchi Hand Sword Strike to Spleen (Generally Stomach Height or Ribs)
Nukite Spear Hand
Koken Top Part of Bent Wrist

 
ex)
Koken Uke = Bent Wrist Block

Tettsui Hammer Fist
Shōtei Palm Heel
Sokugi (Kicking Techniques)

Terms Meanings
Keri (~ Geri) Kick (~ Kick)
Mae Geri Front Kick

 
ex)
Jōdan Mae Geri = High Front Kick

Mawashi Geri Round Kick

 
ex)
Jōdan Mawashi Geri = High Round Kick

Yoko Geri Side Kick

 
ex)
Chūdan Yoko Geri = Middle Height Side Kick

Kansetsu Geri Joint Kick (Low Side Kick to Knee)
Keage Stretch Kick

 
ex)
Mae Keage = Regular Stretch Kick to Front
Yoko Keage = Stretch Side Kick

Uchi Mawashi Geri / Soto Mawashi Geri Inside Crescent Kick / Outside Crescent Kick

(Depending on Karate styles, these are sometimes flipped.)

Ushiro Geri Back Kick
Ushiro Mawashi Geri Back Spin Kick
Tachi Kata (Stances)

Terms Meanings
Tachi (~ Dachi) Stance (~ Stance)
Fudō Dachi Natural Stance
Heisoku Daichi Feet Together (Toes to Heels)
Musubi Dachi Toes pointed 45° outward with heels together
Heikō Dachi Parallel Stance
(Our “Yōi Stance is Parallel Stance with feet shoulder width apart.)
Soto Hachiji Dachi Heels shoulder width apart with toes pointed 45° outward
Uchi Hachiji Dachi From Soto Hachiji Dachi, move heels outward until both feet point 45° inward
Sanchin Dachi From Uchi Hachiji Dachi, move one foot forward and keep toes pointed 45° inward.  Front foot’s heel should line up with back foot’s toes.

 
Right foot in front = Migi Sanchin Dachi
Left foot in front = Hidari Sanchin Dachi

Moro Ashi Dachi One foot in front, with feet parallel.  Walking Stance.
Kōkutsu Dachi Back Stance
Neko Ashi Dachi Cat Stance
Kake Ashi Dachi Scissor Stance
Zenkutsu Dachi Front Stance
Kiba Dachi Horse Stance
Shiko Dachi Sumo Stance
Tsuru Ashi Dachi Crane Stance
Naihanchi Dachi
Seisan Dachi